The gas which strictly obeys the gas laws (Boyle’s laws, Charle’s law etc.),at all tempratures and pressures, remaining as a gas, is known as perfect or ideal gas. The molecules of an ideal gas do not exert force of attraction on one another. Therefore, its molecules have only kinetic energy which depends on temperature. The gas equation for 1 mole of an ideal gas is,
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. Also they can be liquified (even solidified) under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Kinetic Theory of Matter
There is a close relationship between heat and mechanical energy. The nature of this relationship is given by the kinetic theory of matter. Because its explains the nature of heat, so may be called as kinetic theory of heat. It is based on following two postulates ;
- Matter is not continuous but consist of very small particles in large number, called molecules. Even if molecules are in contact with each other there are interspaces in between them. A molecule is the smallest part of the substance having all of its characteristic properties and can have an independent existence.
- The molecules are in a state of continuous motion. i.e., they move haphazardly with great speeds in all directions. the freedom of movement of the molecules is different in there states of matter. i.e.,solid,liquid and gas.
On the basis of kinetic theory, three states of matter are explained in the following way: